Identifikasi Virus Hepatitis A pada Sindrom Penyakit Kuning Akut di Beberapa Provinsi di Indonesia Tahun 2013

Eka Pratiwi, Triyani Soekarso, Kindi Adam, Vivi Setiawaty

Abstract


Penyakit kuning akut dapat disebabkan oleh infeksi virus hepatitis A, B, C, dan E dengan Hepatitis A dan E sebagai penyebab utama wabah. Gejala kuning pada kasus infeksi virus Hepatitis A (HAV) muncul pada 2−6 minggu setelah pasien terinfeksi. Umumnya infeksi HAV tidak akan berkembang menjadi kronis, namun HAV dapat menyebabkan wabah. Pada tahun 2013 terjadi peningkatan penyakit kuning akut pada empat provinsi, yaitu Banten, Kepulauan Riau, Kalimantan Barat, dan Kalimantan Selatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui penyebab penyakit kuning akut yang terjadi pada kejadian luar biasa di empat provinsi tersebut. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dari merebaknya kasus penyakit kuning akut selama tahun 2013 di empat provinsi di Indonesia. Spesimen dikumpulkan dan dikirim ke laboratorium Virologi di Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan (Puslitbang BTDK), Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Spesimen diuji antibodi IgM HAV menggunakan metode enzyme immunoassay. Puslitbang BTDK menerima 102 spesimen dari tujuh kali laporan peningkatan kasus di empat provinsi, yaitu Banten, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Barat, dan Kepulauan Riau. Dari keseluruhan 102 spesimen, 38 spesimen (37%) positif IgM HAV, meliputi Banten 3 (2,9%), Kalimantan Selatan 7 (6,9%), Kepulauan Riau 4 (3,9%), dan Kalimantan Barat 24 (23,5%). Lebih banyak kasus perempuan dibanding dengan laki-laki dan dominan pada usia dewasa. Infeksi HAV adalah penyebab sindrom penyakit kuning akut di empat provinsi di Indonesia.


HEPATITIS A VIRUS IDENTIFICATION ON ACUTE JAUNDICE SYNDROME IN SOME PROVINCES IN INDONESIA IN 2013

Acute jaundice can be caused by hepatitis A, B, C and E virus. Hepatitis A and E are often as the main cause of the jaundice outbreak. The symptoms of Hepatitis A virus infection (HAV) appear  2−6 weeks after the patient infected. Generally HAV infection will not develop into chronic stages, but HAV can cause an outbreak. In 2013 there was an increase of acute jaudice syndrome in four provinces that are Banten, Riau Islands, West Kalimantan and South Kalimantan. The study aims to determine the cause of acute jaundice syndrome that occurs in extraordinary events in the four provinces. Data collection was conducted from outbreaks of acute cases of jaundice during 2013 in four provinces in Indonesia. Specimens were collected and sent to the Virology Laboratory at the Center for Research and Development of Biomedical and Basic Health Technology (Puslitbang BTDK), National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health. The specimens tested using IgM HAV antibody enzyme immunoassay method. Puslitbang BTDK received 102 specimens from seven extraordinary reports in four provinces namely Banten, South Kalimantan, West Kalimantan and Riau Islands. From all 102 specimens, 38 specimens (37%) were positive IgM HAV, including Banten 3 (2.9%), South Kalimantan 7 (6.9%), Riau Islands 4 (3.9%) and West Kalimantan 24 (23.5%). Female cases were more dominant than males. HAV infection is the cause of acute jaundice syndrome in four provinces in Indonesia.


Keywords


Hepatitis A; jaundice; outbreaks; penyakit kuning; sindrom

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v5i3.2386

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