Peningkatan Ekspresi Gen NKG2D Sel-sel NK oleh Brokoli untuk Mencegah Kanker

Diana Krisanti Jasaputra, Khie Khiong Tjhia, Ervi Afifah, Hanna Sari W. Kusuma

Abstract


Abstrak
Kanker termasuk kelompok penyakit tidak menular (non-communicable diseases atau NCD) dan penyebab kematian terbesar di dunia. Salah satu faktor yang memengaruhi perkembangan kanker adalah reseptor NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) merupakan kompleks reseptor yang mengaktivasi sel NK dan penting dalam immunosurveilance kanker. Brokoli, sayuran golongan Cruciferae, mengandung glukosinolat dan isotiosianat. Glukosinolat akan dihidrolisis oleh mirosinase (thioglucodase β) dan membentuk senyawa isotiosianat. Senyawa isotiosianat penting untuk mencegah kanker adalah senyawa sulforafan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menilai efek brokoli dalam meningkatkan ekspresi reseptor NKG2D dalam rangka memperbaiki aktivitas sel NK untuk mencegah kanker. Penelitian ini bersifat prospektif eksperimental laboratorium bersifat komparatif yang dilakukan di Laboratorium Aretha Medika Utama pada Februari–Juli 2016. Brokoli di-freeze dryer dan dibuat tepung dua konsentrasi, yaitu 50 μg/mL dan 25 μg/mL. Penelitian diawali dengan perbanyakan sel NK (cell line), kemudian dilanjutkan dengan perlakuan selama 24 jam dan penilaian ekspresi gen NKG2D menggunakan qPCR. Data penelitian ekspresi gen NKG2D dihitung dengan rumus Livak dan dianalisis menggunakan uji ANOVA satu arah dan uji lanjutan Tukey (SPSS 16). Pemberian brokoli konsentrasi 50 μg/mL dan 25 μg/mL meningkatkan level ekspresi gen NKG2D yang mengindikasikan peningkatan aktivitas sel-sel NK. Simpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian brokoli meningkatkan aktivitas sel-sel NK dalam mencegah dan melawan sel-sel kanker.

Abstract
Cancer is the non-communicable diseases (NCD) and the biggest cause of death in the world. One of the factors that affect cancer development is NKG2D receptors (natural-killer group 2, member D) is a receptor complex that activates NK cells and is important in cancer immunosurveilance. Broccoli, Cruciferae vegetable, contains glucosinolate and isothiocyanate. Glucosinolate will be hydrolysed by the mirosinase (thioglucodase β) and form the isothiocyanate compound. Isothiocyanate compounds essential to prevent cancer are sulforafan compounds. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of broccoli in enhancing NKG2D receptor expression in order to improve NK cell activity to prevent cancer. This experimental study is a comparative true experimental laboratory, conducted in the Aretha Medika Utama in February to July 2016. Broccoli was freeze dryer and made two concentrations of flour, 50 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL. The study begins with multiplication of NK cells (cell line), then continued with treatment for 24 hours and assessment of NKG2D gene expression using qPCR. NKG2D gene expression research data was calculated by Livak formula and analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and Tukey's advanced test (SPSS 16). The administration of broccoli concentrations of 50 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL increased the level of NKG2D gene expression, indicating an increase in NK cell activity. The conclusion of this study is the provision of broccoli increases the activity of NK cells in preventing and fighting cancer cells.


Keywords


Broccoli; brokoli; cancer cells; ekpresi NKG2D; NKG2D expression; sel kanker

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