Toksisitas Akut Ekstrak Air Buah Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) Muda terhadap Morfologi Eritrosit

Yuktiana Kharisma, Eka Hendryanny, Astari P. Riani

Abstract


Abstrak
Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) adalah salah satu obat tradisional yang digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah kesehatan. Pepaya mengandung beberapa substansi fitokimia seperti saponin, alkaloid, terpenoid, dan flavonoid. Saponin dan alkaloid diketahui mampu berinteraksi dengan membran eritrosit dan menyebabkan disintegrasi membran sehingga dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada eritrosit. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui toksisitas akut ekstrak air buah pepaya muda terhadap morfologi eritrosit melalui pengamatan sediaan apus darah tepi. Metode penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratorium dilakukan di Laboratorium Biomedis, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Islam Bandung periode Januari–Februari 2016. Penentuan kelompok dosis berdasar atas proposed (new) recommended method menggunakan 11 ekor tikus yang diberi dosis oral ekstrak air buah pepaya muda 50, 200, 400, 800, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000, 3.000, 4.000, 5.000 mg/kgBB masing-masing dan satu tikus hanya diberikan air sebagai kelompok kontrol. Pengamatan dilakukan setelah 24 jam pemberian ekstrak. Hasil pengamatan sediaan apus darah tepi menunjukkan tidak terdapat perubahan morfologi eritrosit baik bentuk, ukuran, dan warnanya. Simpulan, ekstrak air buah pepaya muda tidak memiliki toksisitas akut terhadap morfologi eritrosit

Abstract
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of traditional medicines which was used to overcome health things. It is contained of some phytochemicals substance such as saponin, alkaloid, terpenoid, and flavonoid. Both saponin and alkaloid were known having an ability to interract with eryhtrocyte membran and cause membrane disintegrity that can destruct the erythrocyte. This study was aimed to know the acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of unripe papaya fruit to the erythrocyte morphology by observe the peripheral blood smear. The method of this study was conducted experimental laboratory at Loboratory of Biomedical, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Bandung in January–February 2016. Determination of dose group is based on proposed (new) recommended method with 11 rats were administrated oral dose 50, 200, 400, 800, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000 mg/kgBW of unripe papaya fruit aqueous extract, and one rat was only given water as control group. Observation had been done at 24 hours after extract administrating. It showed that there was not any abnormal morphology, size, and chromatic changes of erythrocyte in blood smear observations. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of unripe papaya fruit do not have the acute toxicity to erythrocyte morphology.


Keywords


Acute toxicity; buah pepaya muda; eritrosit; erythrocyte; toksisitas akut; unripe papaya

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