Pola Perubahan Transmisi Infeksi HIV di Jawa Barat Periode Tahun 2002–2012

Ridiani Prawitri, Tony S. Djajakusumah, Dicky Santosa

Abstract


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) adalah retrovirus yang termasuk golongan virus RNA yang menginfeksi sel sistem kekebalan tubuh manusia. Infeksi HIV masih menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat di dunia dan dilaporkan terjadi pola perubahan transmisi infeksi HIV dari tahun ke tahun di negara tertentu. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis pola perubahan transmisi infeksi HIV di Jawa Barat pada periode tahun 2002 sampai 2012. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara observasional deskriptif dengan pendekatan retrospektif melalui data tersier berupa laporan pengidap infeksi HIV dan kasus AIDS yang diterima oleh Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Jawa Barat dari Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten/Kota dan Rumah Sakit di Jawa Barat pada tahun 2002 sampai dengan 2012. Penelitian dilakukan selama Desember 2013–Juli 2014. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pola perubahan transmisi yang terjadi di Jawa Barat pada tahun 2002 sampai dengan tahun 2012. Jumlah kasus infeksi HIV melalui transmisi homoseksual yaitu 286 kasus, transmisi heteroseksual 1.519 kasus, jarum suntik 1.408 kasus, transmisi ibu ke anak 140 kasus, dan transfusi darah sebanyak 7 kasus. Terjadi perubahan pada tahun 2011 sampai dengan tahun 2012 yaitu peningkatan transmisi heteroseksual menggantikan posisi transmisi pengguna jarum suntik. Keadaan sempat menurunnya transmisi kasus infeksi HIV melalui jarum suntik di Jawa Barat karena penanggulangan pemerintah yang melakukan terapi rumatan metadon. Peningkatan transmisi heteroseksual yang terjadi dapat dipengaruhi oleh faktor norma budaya, maraknya industri prostitusi, status ekonomi, dan pergaulan remaja muda hedonis yang terjadi di lingkungan masyarakat.

 

CHANGES OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS IN WEST JAVA INDONESIA IN YEAR 2002–2012

Human immunodeficiency virus is a class of retrovirus which has RNA carrying its molecular genetic that infects the human immune system cells. HIV infection has become global issue and has reported there has been pattern changes of HIV transmission in a certain country. The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the pattern changes of HIV transmission in West Java, Indonesia in year 2002 to 2012. The study was an observational descriptive study with retrospective approach using tertiary form of HIV infections and AIDS cases report which was accepted by Provincial Health Office of West Java from Health Office of District Municipality and Hospital in West Java in 2002 to 2012. The study was held in December 2013 to July 2014. The results showed there were pattern changes of HIV transmission in West Java in 2002 to 2012. There were 286 cases of HIV infection due to homosexual transmission, 1,519 cases due to heterosexuals, 1,408 cases due to injection drug users, 140 cases due to mother to child transmission, and 7 cases due to blood transfusion. There were pattern changes in 2011 until 2012 that injection drug users transmission replaced by heterosexual transmission which has had the highest number with HIV infection. Decreased of HIV infection rates caused by injection drug users could be caused by government policies to prevent HIV by using methadone therapies. The increased of heterosexual transmission could be caused by culture, prostitution industry, economic status, and hedonic teen promiscuity which has happened in community.


Keywords


HIV infection; infeksi HIV; pattern changes; pola perubahan; transmisi; transmission



DOI: https://doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v3i1.1541


pISSN 2301-9123 | eISSN 2460-5441

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