Hubungan Faktor Risiko dan Karakteristik Gejala Klinis dengan Kejadian Pneumonia pada Balita

Lisa Adhia Garina, Sherly Fajariani Putri, Yuniarti Yuniarti

Abstract


Pneumonia masih merupakan penyebab kesakitan dan kematian pada balita di negara berkembang. Faktor risiko pneumonia yang selalu ada (definite risk factor) meliputi gizi kurang, bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR), tidak memberikan ASI, polusi udara di dalam ruang, dan pemukiman padat. Gejala pneumonia bervariasi bergantung pada usia penderita dan penyebab infeksinya. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai hubungan faktor risiko dan karakteristik gejala klinis dengan kejadian pneumonia pada balita. Penelitian cross sectional dilaksanakan di UPT Puskesmas Ibrahim Aji Kota Bandung periode April–Juni 2012 pada anak balita usia 6 bulan sampai dengan 59 bulan dengan diagnosis pneumonia dan bukan pneumonia berdasarkan kriteria WHO. Data demografis, faktor risiko, dan karakteristik gejala klinis dicatat dalam formulir penelitian. Penderita pneumonia pada balita terbanyak berusia 6–24 bulan (72%), berjenis kelamin laki-laki (63%), status gizi kurang (56%) berdasarkan BB/U, tidak BBLR (95%), diberikan ASI eksklusif (91%), dan imunisasi dasar lengkap (93%). Analisis uji hubungan antara kejadian pneumonia dan status gizi kurang berdasarkan BB/U didapatkan hasil p<0,001; r=-0,7 dengan lama demam (p=0,024; r=-0,2), lama batuk (p=0,048; r=-0,2), dan takipnea (p<0,001; r=-0,8). Simpulan, terdapat hubungan status gizi kurang, lama demam, lama batuk, dan takipnea dengan kejadian pneumonia pada balita.

CORRELATION OF RISK FACTORS AND  CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS WITH THE INCIDENCE OF PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children mostly in developing countries. Risk factors on pneumonia include malnutrition, low birth weight, non breastfeeding, air room pollution, and densely populated area. Symptoms of pneumonia vary depending on the age of the patient and cause infection. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship risk factor and characteristic clinical symptoms with pneumonia. Cross-sectional study in Primary Health Care Ibrahim Aji Bandung during April–June 2012 among children aged 6 months to 59 months with a diagnosis of pneumonia and not pneumonia based on WHO criteria. Data on demographic, risk factor, and characteristics clinical symptoms were recorded. Pneumonia mostly attacking age 6-24 months (72%), male (63%), malnutrition status (56%) based on the weight/age, non low birth weight (95%), exclusive breastfeeding (91%), and immunization (93%). The association between the incidence of pneumonia with poor nutritional status (p<0.001, r=-0.7), duration of fever (p=0.024, r=-0.2), duration of coughing (p=0.048, r=-0.2) and tachypnoea (p<0.001, r=-0.8).  In conclusion, there is a relationship between poor nutritional status, duration of fever, duration of coughing, and tachypnoea with pneumonia.


Keywords


Clinical symptoms; faktor risiko; gejala klinis; nutritional status; pneumonia; risk factor; status gizi

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v4i1.2007

pISSN 2301-9123 | eISSN 2460-5441


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