Uji Toksisitas Subkronis Ekstrak Kayu Kuning (Arcangelisia flava Merr) terhadap Hepar dan Ginjal

Ema Rachmawati, Evi Umayah Ulfa

Abstract


Kayu kuning (Arcangelisia flava Merr) merupakan tanaman asli Indonesia yang banyak mengandung alkaloid berberin dan flavonoid. Tanaman ini telah terbukti memiliki aktivitas sebagai antioksidan, antibakteri, antikanker, dan antihiperlipidemia, namun belum diketahui pengaruhnya terhadap hepar dan ginjal sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak A. flava terhadap parameter biokimia hepar, histopatologi hepar, dan histopatologi ginjal tikus. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Biomedik, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Jember pada bulan Mei–Agustus 2016. Sebanyak 40 ekor tikus jantan berusia 2–3 bulan dengan bobot 200–300 gram dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok. Kelompok kontrol hanya diberi sodium-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) 1%, sedangkan kelompok perlakukan diberi ekstrak A. flava dosis 250, 500, dan 750 mg/kgBB per oral selama 28 hari. Pada hari ke-28, dilakukan penentuan kadar SGOT, SGPT, serta pengamatan histopatologi hepar dan ginjal. Nilai SGPT menunjukkan tidak berbeda bermakna antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok perlakukan (p<0,05). Hasil pengamatan histopatologi hepar menunjukkan pemberian ekstrak A. flava dosis 250, 500, dan 750 mg/kgBB per oral menyebabkan kongesti pembuluh darah hepar, namun tidak mengakibatkan nekrosis. Pengamatan histopatologi pada ginjal tidak terdapat peradangan, namun terdapat perdarahan sedikit pada glomerulus dan interstitial. Simpulan, pemberian ekstrak A. flava dosis 250, 500, 750 mg/kgBB selama 28 hari tidak mengakibatkan kerusakan hepar dan ginjal.

 

SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY TEST OF YELLOW ROOT EXTRACT (ARCANGELISIA FLAVA MERR) ON HEPAR AND RENAL

Kayu kuning (Arcangelisia flava Merr) is one of Indonesian herbal plant which contain berberine alkaloid and flavonoids. This plant has been proven as antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antihiperlipidemic and antidiabetes. However, the effect of A. flava extract on hepar and renal has not been studied yet. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of A. flava extracts towards chemical parameters of hepar, histopathology of hepar and renal rats. This research was conducted in The Biomedic Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy of Universitas Jember on May to August 2016. Forty Wistar male rats aged 2–3 moths, weighed 200–300 grams were divided into four groups. Control groups were only given sodium-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) 1% orally while tretment groups were given A. flava extracts at dose 250, 500, and 750 mg/kgBW orally for 28 days. On the day 28, the SGOT, SGPT were measured and histopathology of liver and renal were observed. The result of this research showed that SGPT value of control group and treatment group were not significantly different (p<0.05). Histopathogical evaluation of liver showed that oral administration of A. flava extract at dose 250, 500, and 750 mg/kgBW caused congestion of liver blood vessel, but the liver cell did not experience necrosis. Histopathogical observation on renal showed that there was no inflamation but there was a small bleeding in glomerolus and interstitial. In conclusion, the administration of A. flava extract at doze 250, 500 and 750 mg/kbBW for 28 days do not affect the liver and the renal.


Keywords


A. flava extract; ekstrak A. flava; subchronic; subkronik; toksisitas; toxicity

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v6i1.2203

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