Karakteristik Pendonor Darah dengan HIV Reaktif Positif Melalui Rapid Test HIV Tiga Metode

Marlina Rajagukguk, Ricke Loesnihari, Sri Amelia, Tetty Aman Nasution, Ozar Sanuddin

Abstract


Penyakit HIV/AIDS merupakan masalah besar yang mengancam Indonesia dan banyak negara di dunia. Keadaan ini menyebabkan krisis multidimensi bahkan kematian karena sekali terinfeksi akan tetap terinfeksi. Risiko penularan human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) melalui perilaku berisiko dan transfusi darah sebesar 90%. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan faktor risiko pada pendonor darah dengan HIV reaktif positif menggunakan rapid test HIV tiga metode di Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI) Medan. Jenis penelitian ini adalah uji diagnostik dengan memakai rapid test HIV tiga metode pada 75 sampel darah pendonor yang dianggap berisiko. Penelitian dilakukan di Unit Transfusi Darah (UTD) PMI Medan sejak Desember 2015 sampai Juni 2016. Kriteria inklusi, yaitu memenuhi syarat donor yang ditetapkan PMI. Pendonor mempunyai karakteristik perilaku berisiko seperti pengguna jarum suntik (penasun), bertato/tindik, seks bebas, homoseks, pernah berobat kulit, dan pernah menerima transfusi darah. Hasil penelitian terdapat hubungan bermakna kejadian reaktif positif HIV secara rapid test HIV tiga metode dengan nilai p=0,031 sebagian besar reaktif positif memiliki lebih dari satu karakteristik. Dari 75 sampel darah berisiko didapat 19 sampel darah (0,25%) reaktif positif HIV dan 6 sampel (0,08%) indeterminate dan reagen yang paling efektif memeriksa adalah oncoprobe. Simpulan, pendonor dengan hasil reaktif positif HIV secara rapid test HIV tiga metode memiliki karakteristik perilaku berisiko lebih dari satu.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD DONORS WITH HIV REACTIVE POSITIVE THROUGH THE THREE METHODS OF HIV RAPID TEST

HIV/AIDS is a big problem that threatens Indonesia and many countries in the world. This situation causes multidimensional crises and even deaths because once a person  infected they will remain infected. The risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through risky behavior and blood transfusions by 90%. This study aims to determine the characteristic of blood donors with HIV reactive positive using three methods of HIV rapid test at Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) Medan. This study was a diagnostic test using three methods of HIV rapid test on 75 blood samples. The study considered to be at risk directly at blood donor site of Blood Transfusion Unit (UTD) PMI Medan from December 2015 to June 2016 with inclusion criteria that meet the donor requirements set by PMI and risky donors such as users of syringes (IDUs), tattoos/piercing, free sex, homosexuals, have had skin treatment and have received blood transfusions. The results of this study concluded that there was a significant association between HIV reactive positive occurrences in the three methods of HIV rapid test with p=0.031 where most reactive positive had more than one risk behavior. Of the 75 blood samples at risk in 19 blood samples (0.25%) were positively HIV reactive and six samples (0.08%) were indeterminate. The most effective reagent check was oncoprobe. In conclusions, blood donors with HIV reactive positive results in three methods of HIV rapid test have multiple risk factors.


Keywords


Blood donor; donor darah; faktor risiko; HIV rapid test; rapid test HIV; reactive positive; reaktif positif; risk factors

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v6i1.2418

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