Obesity as Risk Factor of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women of Reproductive Age

Hanifah Ardiani, Soeharyo Hadisaputro, Djoko Trihadi Lukmono, Heri Nugroho, Antono Suryoputro

Abstract


Women of childbearing age with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are more at risk of having pregnancy complication (in both the mother and the baby) at twice the risk for sexual dysfunction and three times more likely to die than women of childbearing age without DM. The purpose of this study was to prove obesity as the risk factor of type 2 DM in women of childbearing age. The study design was a case-control and a qualitative analysis using the in-depth interview. This study conducted in Internal Medicine Polyclinic and Eye Polyclinic in Regional General Hospital Madiun, June–July 2017. The population in this study was women of childbearing age  20–49 years old and married who check blood sugar in Regional General Hospital Madiun. The samples of this study were 54 cases and 54 controls using consecutive sampling. Data analyzed by chi-square and logistic regression. The results showed that obese women of childbearing age had risk 2.63 times greater for type 2 DM than non-obese (p=0.016, 95% CI=1.06–6.53). Obesity was a risk factor of type 2 DM in the women of reproductive age, so there was a need to attempt to lose weight to normal body mass index (BMI).

 

OBESITAS SEBAGAI FAKTOR RISIKO DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2 PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR

Wanita usia subur (WUS) dengan diabetes melitus (DM) tipe 2 lebih berisiko mengalami komplikasi kehamilan (baik pada ibu maupun bayinya), berisiko 2 kali lebih besar untuk menderita gangguan fungsi seksual, dan 3 kali lebih besar untuk mengalami kematian dibanding dengan WUS tanpa DM. Tujuan penelitian ini membuktikan obesitas sebagai faktor risiko DM tipe 2 pada WUS. Desain studi dalam penelitian ini adalah kasus kontrol yang diperdalam dengan analisis kualitatif menggunakan wawancara mendalam. Penelitian ini dilakukan di poliklinik penyakit dalam dan poliklinik mata RSUD Kota Madiun Juni–Juli 2017. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah WUS berusia 20–49 tahun dan sudah menikah yang diperiksa gula darah di RSUD Kota Madiun. Sebanyak 54 kasus dan 54 kontrol dipilih menggunakan consecutive sampling. Data dianalisis dengan chi square dan regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa WUS yang obesitas memiliki risiko 2,63 kali lebih besar untuk mengalami DM tipe 2 dibanding dengan yang tidak obesitas (p=0,016; 95% IK=1,06−6,53). Obesitas merupakan faktor risiko DM tipe 2 pada WUS sehingga perlu upaya menurunkan berat badan ke indeks massa tubuh (IMT) normal.


Keywords


Diabetes; obesitas; obesity; wanita usia subur; women of childbearing age

References


Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Profil kesehatan Indonesia 2015. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI; 2016.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Diabetes in pregnancy; its impact on australian women and their babies. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2010.

Helene K, Justine D. Promoting healthy weight among women of reproductive age introduction and background healthy weight among women in the United States. Washington: AMCHP/City Match Women’s Health Partnersh; 2006.

Chivese T, Mahmoud W, Magodoro I, Kengne AP, Norris SA, Levitt NS. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women of childbearing age in Africa during 2000–2016: protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016;6(12):1–5.

RSUD Kota Madiun. Buku registrasi dan kohort persalinan 2016–2017. Madiun: RSUD Kota Madiun; 2017.

Dina A, Ming W, Aniza I. Risk factors for predicting female sexual dysfunction among reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Endocrinol Metab Malaysia. 2010;1(1).

Rowley DL, Danel IA, Berg FV. The reproductive years. In: Gloria LAB, Thompson-Reid PE, editors. Diabetes and women’s health across the life stages. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers, Control and Prevention, National CDC; 2001. pp. 69–91.

Geyer N. Overweight and obesity in the reproductive-age population of the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study. J Obesity Weight Loss Ther. 2013;3(1):1–5.

Bray GA, Jablonski KA, Fujimoto WY, Barrett-Connor E, Haffner S, Hanson RL, et al. Relation of central adiposity and body mass index to the development of diabetes in the diabetes prevention program. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:1212–8.

Ley SH, Harris SB, Connelly PW, Mamakeesick M, Gittelsohn J, Hegele RA, et al. Adipokines and incident type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal Canadian population. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(7):1410–5.

Delima, Isnawati A, Raini M. Hipertensi dan diabetes melitus pada wanita usia subur (WUS) di daerah urban di Indonesia. JBMI. 2012;1(1)41–53.

Riazi M. The routledge encyclopedia of research methods in applied linguistics quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods research: homogenous sample. London: Routledge; 2016.

Perkeni. Konsensus pengelolaan dan pencegahan diabetes melitus tipe 2 di indonesia 2015: definisi, patogenesis, klasifikasi. Jakarta: Perkeni; 2015.

Nuttall FQ. Body mass index. Nutr Res Nutr Today. 2015;50(3):117–28.

Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 41 Tahun 2014 tentang Pedoman Gizi Seimbang. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI; 2014.

Hjerkind KV, Stenehjem JS, Nilsen TIL. Adiposity, physical activity and risk of diabetes mellitus: prospective data from the population-based HUNT study, Norway. BMJ Open. 2017;7:1–8.

Ibe A, Smith TC. Diabetes in US women on the rise independent of increasing BMI and other risk factors; a trend investigation of serial cross-sections. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):954.

Shai I, Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Colditz GA, et al. Ethnicity, obesity, and risk of type 2 diabetes in women: a 20-year follow-up study. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(7):1585–90.

Kusminski CM, Ternan PG, Kumar S. Role of resistin in obesity, insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Clin Sci Biochem Soc. 2005;256:243–56.

Goldstein BJ, Wieland DM. Type 2 diabetes, principle and practice: epidemic of type 2 diabetes. New York: Informa Health Care; 2008.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v6i2.2708

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



pISSN 2301-9123 | eISSN 2460-5441

Visitor since 19 October 2016:

View My Stats

Free counters!

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.