Effects of Metformin, Avocado Seed, and Diabetic Ingredients Infusion to Weight and Fasting Blood Glucose on Sucrose Diet Rats

Diana Krisanti Jasaputra, Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Elizabeth Elizabeth

Abstract


Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug which has metabolic effects and weight loss after 6–9 months; however, after 18 months, these effects disappear. Oral hypoglycemic drugs with no effect on raising the weight are needed. The objective of the study is comparing the effects of metformin, avocado seed infusion (AS), and diabetic ingredients/DI (green chiretta, Java tea, and bitter grapes) in increasing weight and fasting blood glucose of rats with sucrose diet. The research was conduct at the Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Kristen Maranatha in February–August 2017. The results showed that metformin within six weeks reduced weight (75.55%) compared to control (+) with a hypercaloric diet (114.36%). Metformin and hypercaloric diet in rats for 14 weeks showed a 125.66% increase in weight, higher than control (+) (114.36%), although not significant (p>0.05). Weight in rats with hypercaloric and AS diet for 14 weeks was 94.30% and 81.68% in DI was lower than control (+) (114.36%), but not significant (p>0.05). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) of dietary hypercaloric rats and metformin was 123.75 mg/dL, higher than control (+), which was 85.75 mg/dL (p<0.01), whereas FBG infusion of AS and DI during 14 weeks: 85.75 mg/dL, and 99.50 mg/dL, not significant to control (+) (p>0.05). In conclusions, metformin increased rats body weight even though not significantly and fasting blood glucose in rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 14 weeks, while avocado seed infusion and diabetec ingredients infusion did not.

 

EFEK METFORMIN, INFUSI BIJI ALPUKAT, DAN INFUSI RAMUAN DIABETES TERHADAP BERAT BADAN DAN GLUKOSA DARAH PUASA PADA TIKUS DIET SUKROSA

Metformin, obat hipoglikemik oral berefek metabolik dan menurunkan berat badan (BB) setelah 6–9 bulan, namun setelah 18 bulan efek ini hilang. Diperlukan obat hipoglikemik oral yang tidak berefek meningkatkan BB. Tujuan penelitian ini membandingkan efek metformin, infusi biji alpukat (BA), dan infusi ramuan diabetes/RD (sambiloto, kumis kucing, dan bratawali) dalam meningkatkan BB dan glukosa darah puasa pada tikus diet sukrosa. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Farmakologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Kristen Maranatha periode Februari–Agustus 2017. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan metformin dalam waktu 6 minggu mengurangi penambahan BB (75,55%) dibanding dengan kontrol (+) diet hiperkalori (114,36%). Pemberian metformin dan diet hiperkalori pada tikus selama 14 minggu menunjukkan kenaikan BB 125,66%, lebih tinggi dibanding dengan kontrol (+) (114,36%), walaupun tidak signifikan (p>0,05). Berat badan pada tikus dengan diet hiperkalori dan infusi BA selama 14 minggu adalah 94,30% dan  RD 81,68%, lebih rendah dibanding dengan kontrol (+) (114,36%), namun tidak signifikan (p>0,05). Glukosa darah puasa (GDP) tikus diet hiperkalori dan metformin adalah 123,75 mg/dL, lebih tinggi dibanding dengan kontrol (+) 85,75 mg/dL (p<0,01), sedangkan GDP infusi BA dan RD selama 14 minggu adalah 85,75 mg/dL dan 99,50 mg/dL, tidak signifikan terhadap GDP kontrol (+) (p>0,05). Simpulan, metformin meningkatkan berat badan tikus walau tidak signifikan dan meningkatkan glukosa darah puasa pada tikus diet hiperkalori selama 14 minggu, sedangkan infusi biji alpukat dan ramuan diabetes tidak.


Keywords


Avocado seed; berat badan; biji alpukat; diabetic ingredient; fasting blood glucose; glukosa darah puasa; metformin; ramuan diabetes; weight

Full Text:

PDF

References


Rena G, Hardie DG, Pearson ER. The mechanisms of action of metformin. Diabetologia. 2017;60(9):1577–85.

Gong L, Goswami S, Giacomini KM, Altman RB, Klein TE. Metformin pathways: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012;22(11):820–7.

Golay A. Metformin and body weight. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32(1):61–72.

Sharma M, Beckley N, Nazareth I, Petersen I. Effectiveness of sitagliptin compared to sulfonylureas for type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017;7(10):e017260.

Maruthur NM, Tseng E, Hutfless S, Wilson LM, Suarez-Cuervo C, Berger Z, et al. Diabetes medications as monotherapy or metformin-based combination therapy for type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164(11):740–51.

van der Aa MP, Hoving V, van de Garde EMW, de Boer A, Knibbe CAJ, van der Vorst MMJ. The effect of eighteen-month Metformin treatment in obese adolescents: comparison of results obtained in daily practice with results from a clinical trial. J Obes. 2016;2016:7852648.

Saboor Aftab SA, Reddy N, Smith E, Barber TM. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Intern Med. 2014;S6:002.

Kumala S, Utami H, Sari WK. The effect of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) leave extract towards the mouse’s blood glucose decrease with the glucose tolerance method. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2013;4(2):661–5.

Chan RSM, Woo J. Prevention of overweight and obesity: how effective in the current public health approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7(3):765–83.

Lima CR, Vasconcelos CFB, Costa-Silva JH, Maranhão CA, Costa J, Batista TM, et al. Anti-diabetic activity of extract from Persea americana Mill. leaf via the activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(1):517–25.

Ranade SS, Thiagarajan P. (PDF) A review on Persea americana Mill (avocado). Its fruit and oil. Int J PharmTech Res. 2015;8(6):72–7.

Edem DO, Ekanem I, Ebong P. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana Mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2009;22(3):272–6.

Akhtar MT, Bin Mohd Sarib MS, Ismail IS, Abas F, Ismail A, Lajis NH, et al. Anti-diabetic ativity and metabolic changes induced by Andrographis paniculata plant extract in obese diabetic rats. Molecules. 2016;21(8):E1026.

Thakur AK, Rai G, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Beneficial effects of an Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on cognitive functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(9):1528–38.

Mohamed EA, Yam MF, Ang LF, Mohamed AJ, Asmawi MZ. Antidiabetic properties and mechanism of action of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth bioactive sub-fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2013;6(1):31–40.

Ashraf K, Sultan S, Adam A. Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. is an outstanding food medicine: review of phytochemical and pharmacological activities. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2018;10(3):109–18.

Tan RS, Bajo LM. Modulation of Tinospora rumphii and zinc salt on DNA damage in quinoline-induced genotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in male albino mice. Adv Toxicol. 2014;2014:201762.

Klangjareonchai T, Roongpisuthipong C. The effect of Tinospora crispa on serum glucose and insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:808762.

Zuhrotun A. Aktivitas antidiabetes ekstrak etanol biji buah alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) bentuk bulat [Internet]. pustaka.unpad.ac.id. 2007 [cited 2017 August 31]. Available from: http://pustaka.unpad.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/aktivitas_antidiabetes.pdf.

Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 6 Tahun 2016 tentang Formularium Obat Herbal Asli Indonesia.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v7i1.2917


pISSN 2301-9123 | eISSN 2460-5441

Visitor since 19 October 2016:

View My Stats

Free counters!

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.