Folic Acid Usual Doses Decrease the Buccal Micronucleus Frequency on Smokers

Yuktiana Kharisma, Meta Maulida Damayanti, Fajar Awalia Yulianto, Santun Bhekti Rahimah, Winni Maharani, Meike Rachmawati, Herri S. Sastramihardja, Muhammad Alief Abdul ‘Aziiz, Muhammad Ilham Halim


Cigarette contains toxic chemical compounds that trigger DNA instability. Initial genotoxic oral cavity characterized by the appearance of micronucleus (MN) in the buccal mucosa. Folate is needed in maintaining DNA stability. This study aimed to compare the effects of folic acid usual doses (400 mcg and 1.000 mcg) on the MN frequency of buccal mucosa in active smokers. It is a clinical trial conducted in November 2018 in the Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Bandung of 53 active smokers who divided into two treatment groups. Group A was administered by 400 mcg and group B 1,000 mcg folic acid supplementation within three weeks. The buccal mucosa smear stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed through a light microscope with 100× and 400× magnification. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test statistically. The results showed that there was a significant decrease (p=0.00) in MN frequency in folic acid supplementation for three weeks, namely group A=6.39±3.92 and group B=6.93±5.82 in pre-supplementation, and group A=3.80±2.66 and group B=3.31±2.71 post-supplementation of folic acid. Giving a dose of 400 mcg and 1,000 mcg for three weeks did not provide significant results (p=0.94) with Kruskal-Wallis test. In conclusion, administration of folic acid at usual dose give results to a decrease in the buccal mucosa MN frequency in active smokers.



Asap rokok mengandung senyawa kimia toksik yang memicu ketidakstabilan DNA. Deteksi genotoksik awal  rongga mulut ditandai dengan kemunculan mikronukleus (MN) pada mukosa bukal. Folat diperlukan dalam menjaga kestabilan DNA. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui efek asam folat dosis lazim (400 mcg dan 1.000 mcg) terhadap frekuensi MN mukosa bukal pada perokok aktif. Penelitian ini merupakan uji klinis yang dilakukan pada bulan November 2018 di Laboratorium Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Islam Bandung terhadap 53 perokok aktif yang dibagi ke dalam dua kelompok perlakuan. Kelompok A mendapatkan suplementasi asam folat 400 mcg dan kelompok B mendapatkan suplementasi asam folat 1.000 mcg selama tiga pekan. Apus mukosa bukal diwarnai dengan hematoxylin-eosin (HE) dan diamati melalui mikroskop cahaya dengan pembesaran 100× dan 400x. Data dianalisis dengan uji Wilcoxon secara statistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat penurunan frekuensi MN yang signifikan (p=0.00) terhadap suplementasi asam folat selama tiga minggu, yaitu kelompok A=3,80±2,66 dan kelompok B=3,31±2,71 pada pre-suplementasi, serta kelompok A=6,39±3,92 dan kelompok B=6,93±5,82 pascasuplementasi asam folat. Pemberian dosis 400 mcg dan 1.000 mcg selama tiga minggu tidak memberikan hasil yang bermakna (p=0,94) berdasar atas Uji Kruskal-Wallis. Simpulan, pemberian asam folat dosis lazim memberikan hasil baik terhadap penurunan frekuensi MN mukosa bukal pada perokok aktif.


Active smokers; asam folat; folic acid; micronucleus; mikronukleus; perokok aktif

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