Relationship of Knowledge and Perception of Self-Medication of Cough Medicine to Lung Function Disorders in Construction Workers in Indonesia

Rivan Virlando Suryadinata, Amelia Lorensia, Rahmat Rizki


Construction workers were at high risk for chronic lung disease and decreased lung function, which often causes coughing symptoms. Self-medicated cough medicines were not only at risk for the incidence of side effects but also associated with the economy. This study aimed to determine differences in knowledge and perceptions about pulmonary function disorders. This study was an observational study using a case-control design conducted from April to December 2018. The subject was actively working in Rungkut subdistrict, Surabaya. Data will be presented descriptively, with relationships and differences analyzed using the chi-square test. Respondents found in both groups were 158, with 79 respondents in each group. Most of the respondents had a very high level of knowledge and perception in the group with impaired lung function (p=0.000). In addition, there is a relationship between knowledge and perception of self-medication of cough medicine. In conclusion, knowledge is related to construction workers' perception of self-medication of cough medicine.


Cough medicine; knowledge; lung function; perception; self-medication

Full Text:



Badan Pusat Statistik. Statistik Indonesia 2018 [Internet]. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik; 2018 [cited 2021 November 20]. Available from:

Pemerintah Kota Surabaya. Rencana pembangunan jangka menengah daerah (RPJMD) Kota Surabaya tahun 2016–2021 (Perda Nomor 10 Tahun 2016) [Internet]. Surabaya: Pemerintah Kota Surabaya; 2016 [cited 2021 November 30]. Available from:

Manisalidis I, Stavropoulou E, Stavropoulos A, Bezirtzoglou E. environmental and health impacts of air pollution: a review. Front Public Health. 2020;8:14.

Kurt OK, Zhang J, Pinkerton KE. Pulmonary health effects of air pollution. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2016;22(2):138–43.

Mathew AR, Kalhan R. Modifiable risk factors for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap: encouraging healthy living. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018;15(11):1275–6.

The Center for Construction Research and Training. The construction chart book: the U.S. construction industry and its workers. 5th edition. Silver Spring: The Center for Construction Research and Training; 2013.

Forum of International Respiratory Societies. The global impact of respiratory disease. 2nd Edition. Sheffield: European Respiratory Society; 2017.

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2020 report) [Internet]. Deer Park: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; 2020 [cited 2021 December 10]. Available from:

Lee SJ, Kim SW, Kong KA, Ryu YJ, Lee JH, Chang JH. Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among never-smokers in Korea. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:497–506.

Durham AL, Adcock IM. The relationship between COPD and lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2015;90(2):121–7.

Strzelak A, Ratajczak A, Adamiec A, Feleszko W. Tobacco smoke induces and alters immune responses in the lung triggering inflammation, allergy, asthma and other lung diseases: a mechanistic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(5):1033.

Zuo L, He F, Sergakis GG, Koozehchian MS, Stimpfl JN, Rong Y, et al. Interrelated role of cigarette smoking, oxidative stress, and immune response in COPD and corresponding treatments. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307(3):L205–18.

Suryadinata RV, Wirjatmadi B, Lorensia A. The time pattern of selenomethionine administration in preventing free radicals due to exposure to electric cigarette smoke. J Public Health Res. 2021;10(2):2232.

Sears MR. Smoking, asthma, chronic airflow obstruction and COPD. Eur Respir J. 2015;45:586–8.

Andrani F, Aiello M, Bertorelli G, Crisafulli E, Chetta A. Cough, a vital reflex. mechanisms, determinants and measurements. Acta Biomed. 2019;89(4):477–80.

Lorensia A, Yudiarso A, Arrahmah R. Evaluasi pengetahuan dan persepsi obat batuk swamedikasi oleh perokok. MKMI. 2018;14(4):395–405.

Kloosterboer SM, McGuire T, Deckx L, Moses G, Verheij T, van Driel ML. Self-medication for cough and the common cold: information needs of consumers. Aust Fam Physician. 2015;44(7):497–501.

Soroush A, Abdi A, Andayeshgar B, Vahdat A, Khatony A. Exploring the perceived factors that affect self-medication among nursing students: a qualitative study. BMC Nurs. 2018;17:35.

Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2014(11):CD001831.

Thorley AJ, Tetley TD. Pulmonary epithelium, cigarette smoke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007;2(4):409–28.

De Blasio F, Virchow JC, Polverino M, Zanasi A, Behrakis PK, Kilinç G, et al. Cough management: a practical approach. Cough. 2011;7(1):7.

Barroso AT, Martin EM, Romero LMR, Ruiz FO. Factors Affecting Lung Function: A Review of the Literature. Arch Bronconeumol. 2018;54(6):327–32.

Asnani MR, Barton-Gooden A, Grindley M, Knight-Madden J. Disease knowledge, illness perceptions, and quality of life in adolescents with sickle cell disease: is there a link? Glob Pediatr Health. 2017;4:2333794X17739194.

Lorensia A, Wahyudi M, Yudiarso A, Kurnia SED. Effect of illness perception on improving asthma symptoms with omega-3 fish oil therapy: pre-post design. JAPS. 2020;10(6):62–71.

Zyoud SH, Shtaya RM, Hamadneh DQ, Sawalmeh SN, Khadrah HA, Zedat RR, et al. Parental knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards self-medication for their children: a cross-sectional study from Palestine. APFM. 2019;18(1):216.

LoMauro A, Aliverti A. Sex differences in respiratory function. Breathe (Sheff). 2018;14(2):131–40.

Chotimah C, Ramadan MA. Discoloration difference between acrylic artificial teeth exposed to filter- and electronic-cigarette smoke in the Laboratory Faculty of Dentistry, Muslim University of Indonesia in 2017. J Dentomaxillofac Sci. 2020;5(3):177–80.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US). How tobacco smoke causes disease: the biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease: a report of the Surgeon General [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2010 [cited 2021 December 10]. Available from: .

Al Hariri M, Zibara K, Farhat W, Hashem Y, Soudani N, Al Ibrahim F, et al. Cigarette smoking-induced cardiac hypertrophy, vascular inflammation and injury are attenuated by antioxidant supplementation in an animal model. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:397.

Arumsari D, Martini S, Artanti KD, Widati S. The description of smoking degree based on Brinkman index in patients with lung cancer. JBE. 2019;7(3):249–56.

Kim V, Criner GJ. Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(3):228–37.

Dapaah G, Koffuor GA, Mante PK, Ben IO. Antitussive, expectorant and analgesic effects of the ethanol seed extract of Picralima nitida (Stapf) Th. & H. Durand. Res Pharm Sci. 2016;11(2):100–12.

Zeid W, Hamed M, Mansour N, Diab R. Prevalence and associated risk factors of self-medication among patients attending El-Mahsama family practice center, Ismailia, Egypt. Bull Natl Res Cent. 2020;44:92.


pISSN 2301-9123 | eISSN 2460-5441

Visitor since 19 October 2016: 

View My Stats

Free counters!

Global Medical and Health Communication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.