Public Service Motivation Differences Between Permanent and Contract Employees in the Local Government

Wayu Eko Yudiatmaja

Abstract


This article examines the distinction of public service motivation (PSM) on street-level bureaucracy in Indonesia. Focus of this study is to review the differentiation of public service motivation between permanent and contract employees in sub-districts of Tanjungpinang, Kepulauan Riau. The dimensions and indicators of Perry’s (1996) measurement of PSM is used to analyze the differentiation of public service motivation between permanent and contract employees. Independent sampel t-test has employed to 129 government employees and 74 non-government employees in Tanjungpinang. Unlike in developed countries that PSM of its civil services are higher than PSM of contract employees, the findings of this research proves that there is no differences between PSM of permanent and contract employees. The findings of this research rejects the conclusion of foreign scholars suggesting the PSM construct was viable for internationally environment.


Keywords


Public Service Motivation, permanent and contract employees

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams, J. Stacy. 1965. Inequity in Social Exchange in L. Berkowitz (Ed) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press.

Ahmad, Badu and Baharuddin. 2011. Analyzing Competence and Performance of the Recruitment of Contract Employee Become Permanent Employee in the Government of Makassar City. Fundamental Research Report for Institute of Research and Community Service, the University of Hasanuddin.

Alonso, Pablo and Gregory B. Lewis. 2001. Public Service Motivation and Job Performance: Evidence from the Federal Sector. American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 31 No. 4 (December).

Andersen, Lotte Bøgh et al. 2011. Does Ownership Matter? Public Service Motivation among Physiotherapists in the Private and Public Sectors in Denmark. Review of Public Personnel Administration, Vol. 31 No. 1 (March).

Central Bureau of Statistics. 2015. Statistik Indonesia (Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia) 2015. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.

Baharuddin. 2015. Akuntabilitas Pelayanan Publik: Studi Kasus Pelayanan Perizinan Mendirikan Bangunan di Kota Makassar [Public Service Accountability: Case Study on Building Permit in the City of Makassar]. Mimbar: Jurnal Sosial dan Pembangunan Vo. 31 No. 2 (December).

Bandura, Albert. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychological Review, Vol. 84 No. 2 (March).

Bangcheng, Liu. 2009. Evidence of Public Service Motivation of Social Workers in China. International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 75 No. 2 (June).

Behn, Robert D. 1995. The Big Questions of Public Management. Public Administration Review, Vol. 55 No. 4 (July-August).

Benz, Matthias. 2005. Not for the Profit, but for the Sastisfaction?-Evidence on Worker Well-Being in Non-Profit Firms. Kyklos, Vol. 58 No. 2 (May).

Bertelli, Anthony M. 2006. Motivation Crowding and the Federal Civil Servant: Evidence from the US Internal Revenue Service. International Public Management Journal, Vol. 9 No. 1 (Jan-March).

Brewer, Gene A. 2003. Building Social Capital: Civic Attitudes and Behavior of Public Servants. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 13 No. 1 (January).

Brewer, Gene A. and Sally Colemen Selden. 1998. Whistle Blowers in the Federal Civil Service: New Evidence of the Public Service Ethic. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 8 No. 3 (July).

Brewer, Gene A. and Sally Colemen Selden. 2000. Why Elephants Gallop: Assessing and Predicting Organizational Performance in Federal Agencies. Journal of Public Administration Researh and Theory, Vol. 10 No. 4 (October).

Brewer, Gene. A. et al. 2000. Individual Conceptions of Public Service Motivation. Public Administration Review, Vol. 60 No. 3 (May/June).

Bright, Leonard. 2011. Does Public Service Motivation Affect the Occupation Choices of Public Employees?. Public Personnel Management, Vol. 40 No. 1 (Spring).

Buelens, Marc and Herman Van den Broeck. 2007. An Analysis of Differences in Work Motivation between Public and Private Sector Organizations. Public Administration Review, Vol. 67 No. 1 (February).

Camilleri, Emanuel. 2006. Towards Developing an Organisational Commitment–Public Service Motivation Model for the Maltese Public Service Employees. Public Policy and Administration, Vol. 21 No. 1 (Spring).

Camilleri, Emanuel. 2007. Antecedents Affecting Public Service Motivation. Personnel Review, Vol. 36 No. 3 (May).

Castaing, Sébastien. 2006. The Effects of Psychological Contract Fulfillment and Public Service Motivation on Organizational Commitment in the French Civil Service. Public Policy and Administration, Vol 21 No. 1 (Spring).

Choi, Do Lim. 2004. Public Service Motivation and Ethical Conduct. International Review of Public Administration, Vol. 8 No. 2 (July).

Choi, Young Jun. 2001. A Study of Public Service Motivation: The Korean Experience. Dissertation in the College of Graduate Studies University of Idaho.

Christensen, Robert K. and Bradley E. Wright. 2011. The Effects of Public Service Motivation on Job Choice Decisions: Disentangling the Contributions of Person-Organization Fit and Person-Job Fit. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 21 No. 4 (October).

Crewson, Philip E. 1995. A Comparative Analysis of Public and Private Sector Entrant Quality. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 39 No. 3 (August).

Crewson, Philip E. 1997. Public-Service Motivation: Building Empirical Evidence of Incidence and Effect. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 7 No. 4 (October).

Deci, Edward L. 1976. Intrinsic Motivation, Second Printing. New York: Plenum Press.

DeHart-Davis, Leisha et al. 2006. Gender Dimensions of Public Service Motivation. Public Administration Review, Vol. 66 No. 6 (December).

Frank, Sue A. and Gregory B. Lewis. 2004. Government Employees: Working Hard or Hardly Working?. American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 34 No. 1 (March).

Frederickson, H. George and David K. Hart. 1985. The Public Service and the Patriotism of Benevolence. Public Administration Review, Vol. 45 No. 5 (September-October).

Frey, Bruno S. and Margit Osterloh (Eds). 2002. Successful Management by Motivation: Balancing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Incentives. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Gabris, Gerald T. and Gloria Simo. 1995. Public Service Motivation as an Independent Variable Affecting Career Decisions. Public Personnel Management, Vol. 24 No. 1 (March).

Grindle, Merilee S. 1997. Divergent Cultures? When Public Organizations Perform Well in Developing Countries. World Development, Vol. 25 No. 4 (January).

Hardiyansyah. 2012. Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Mendirikan Bangunan pada Dinas Tata Kota di Kota Palembang [Analyzing Service Quality of Building Permit in the Board of City Planning of Palembang]. Mimbar: Jurnal Sosial dan Pembangunan Vo. 28 No. 2 (December).

Houston, D. J. 2000. Public Service Motivation: A Multivariate Test. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 10 No. 4 (October).

Houston, David J. 2006. “Walking the Walk” of Public Service Motivation: Public Employees and Charitable Gifts of Time, Blood, and Money. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 16 No. 1 (January).

Heller, Peter and Alan A. Tait. 1983. Government Employment and Pay: Some International Comparisons. Finance and Development (September).

Kachornkittiya, Nattee et al. 2012. Factors Affecting Public Service Motivation: Empirical Study of Municipal Employees in the Three Southern Border Provinces of Thailand. International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 3 No. 18 (September).

Kanfer, Ruth et al (Eds). 2008. Work Motivation: Past, Present, and Future. New York: Routledge.

Kim, Sangmook. 2005. Individual Level-Factors and Organizational Performance in Government Organizations. Journal of Public Administration Researh and Theory, Vol. 15 No. 2 (April).

Kim, Sangmook. 2006. Public Service Motivation and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Korea. International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 27 No. 8.

Kim, Sangmook. 2009. Testing the Structure of Public Service Motivation in Korea: A Research Note. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 19 No. 4 (October).

Kim, Sangmook and Wouter Vandenabeele. 2010. A Strategy for Building Public Service Motivation Research Internationally. Public Administration Review, Vol. 70 No. 5 (September/October).

Kim, Seung Hyun and Sangmook Kim. 2016. National Culture and Social Desirability Bias in Measuring Public Service Motivation. Administration and Society, Vol. 48 No. 4 (May).

King, Dwight Y. 1988. Civil Service Policies in Indonesia: An Obstacle to Decentralization?. Public Administration and Development, Vol. 8 No. 3 (July/September).

Kjeldsen, Anne Mette. 2012. Dynamics of Public Service Motivation. Ph.D Dissertation at the Department of Political Science and Government Business and Social Sciences Aarhus University.

Komalasari, Puput Tri et al. 2009. Pengaruh Public Service Motivation dan Organizational Citizenship Behavior terhadap Kinerja Organisasi Pemerintahan [The Effects of Public Service Motivation and Organizational Citizenship Behavior on the Performance of Governmental Organization]. Jurnal Manajemen Teori dan Terapan, Vol. 2 No. 2 (Agustus).

Latham, Gary P. 2007. Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Latham, Gary P. and Edwin A. Locke. 1979. Goal Setting—A Motivational Technique That Works. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 8 No. 2 (Autumn).

Leisink, Peter and Bram Steijn. 2009. Public Service Motivation and Job Performance of Public Sector Employees in the Netherlands. International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 75 No. 1 (March)

Lee, Young-joo and Vicky M. Wilkins. 2011. More Similarities or More Differences? Comparing Public and Nonprofit Managers’ Job Motivations. Public Administration Review, Vol. 71 No. 1 (January/February).

Liu, Bangcheng. 2009. Evidence of Public Service Motivation of Social Workers in China. International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 75 No. 2 (June).

Liu, Bangcheng et al. 2008. Public Service Motivation and Job Satisfaction in China: An Investigation of Generalisability and Instrumentality. International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 29 No. 8.

Liu, Bangcheng et al. 2014. Compassion as the Affective Dimension of Public Service Motivation in a Chinese Context. Social Behavior and Personality, Vol. 42 No. 2.

Maslow, Abraham. 1954. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Morrison, J. C. 2012. The Impact of Public Service Motivation on Turnover Intentions of Federal Employees. Dissertation in the Graduate School of the University of Alabama.

Moynihan, Donald P. and Sanjay K. Pandey. 2007. The Role of Organizations in Fostering Public Service Motivation. Public Administration Review, Vol. 67 No. 1 (January/February).

Naff, Katherine C. and John Crum. 1999. Working for America: Does Public Service Motivation Make a Difference?. Review of Public Personnel Administration, Vol. 19 No. 1 (October).

Nawab, Samina et al. 2011. An Analysis of Differences in Work Motivation between Public and Private Sector Organizations. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 2 No. 11 (March).

Nugroho, M. Kris. 2004. Analyzing the Factors Relationship with Public Nurse Performance in Kudus Regencey Puskemas. Thesis at the Graduate School of Public Health, Diponegoro University.

Octarina, Arischa. 2013. Pengaruh Etos Kerja dan Disiplin Kerja terhadap Kinerja Pegawai pada Dinas Kebudayaan, Pariwisata, Pemuda dan Olahraga Kabupaten Sarolangun [The Effects of Work Ethos and Work Discipline on Employe Performance at the Board of Culture, Tourism, Youth and Sport of Sarolangun]. Jurnal Karya Mahasiswa, Vol. 1 No. 1.

Perry, James L. 1996. Measuring Public Service Motivation: An Assessment of Construct Reliability and Validity. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 6 No. 1 (January).

Perry, James L. 1997. Antecedents of Public Service Motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 7 No. 2 (April).

Perry, James L. 2000. Bringing Society In: Toward a Theory of Public-Service Motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 10 No. 2 (April).

Perry, James L. 2014. The Motivational Bases of Public Service: Foundations for a Third Wave of Research. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 36 No. 1 (January).

Perry, James L. and Lois RecascinoWise. 1990. The Motivational Bases of Public Service. Public Administration Review,Vol. 50 No. 3 (May/June).

Perry, James L. and Annie Hondeghem. (Eds). 2008a. Motivation in Public Management: The Call of Public Service. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Perry, J. L. and Hondeghem, A. 2008b. Building Theory and Empirical Evidence about Public Service Motivation. International Public Management Journal,Vol. 11 No. 1 (January).

Perry, James L. et al. 2008. What Drives Morally Committed Citizens?: A Study of the Antecedents of Public Service Motivation. Public Administration Review, Vol. 68 No. 3 (May/June).

Perry, James L. et al. 2010. Revisiting the Motivational Bases of Public Service: Twenty Years of Research and an Agenda for the Future. Public Administration Review, Vol. 70 No. 5 (September/October).

Prasojo, Eko. 2007. An Analysis of the Government Systems in Indonesia. Draft of the Final Report for Administrative Sciences Department University of Indonesia and Korea-Australasia Research Centre the University of New South Wales.

Rainey, Hal G. 1979. Perceptions of Incentives in Business and Government: Implications for Civil Service Reform. Public Administration Review, Vol. 39 No. 5 (September/October).

Rainey, Hal G. 1982. Reward Preferences among Public and Private Managers: In Search of the Service Ethic. American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 16 No. 4 (Winter).

Rainey, Hal G. 1983. Public Agencies and Private Firms: Incentive Structures, Goals, and Individual Roles. Administration and Society, 15(2): 207-242.

Rainey, Hal G. 2003. Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, Third Edition. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rainey, Hal G. and Paula Steinbauer. 1999. Galloping Elephants: Developing Elements of a Theory of Effective Government Organizations. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 9 No. 1 (January).

Ritz, Adrian. 2009. Public Service Motivation and Organizational Performance in Swiss Federal Government. International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol 75 No. 1 (March).

Ritz, Adrian and Gene A. Brewer. 2013. Does Societal Culture Affect Public Service Motivation? Evidence of Sub-national Differences in Switzerland. International Public Management Journal, Vol. 16 No. 2 (April).

Sansone, Carol and Judith M. Harackiewicz (Eds). 2000. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Serneels, Pieter et. al. 2007. For Public Service or Money: Understanding Geographical Imbalances in the Health Workforce. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 22 No. 3 (May).

Shim, Dong Chul et al. 2015. Street-Level Bureaucrats’ Turnover Intention: Does Public Service Motivation Matter?. International Review of Administrative Sciences,Vol. 81 No. 3 (September).

Schiavo-Campo, Salvatore. 1998. Government Employment and Pay: The Global and Regional Evidence. Public Administration and Development, Vol. 18 No. 5 (December).

Steijn, Bram. 2008. Person-Environment Fit and Public Service Motivation. International Public Management Journal, Vol. 11 No. 1 (January).

Syamsir. 2014. Public Service Motivation and Socio Demographic Antecedents among Civil Service in Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi dan Organisasi, Bisnis dan Birokrasi, Vol. 21 No. 1 (January).

Taylor, Jeannette. 2007. The Impact of Public Service Motives on Work Outcomes in Australia: A Comparative Multi-Dimensional Analysis. Public Administration, Vol. 85 No. 4 (December).

Taylor, Jeannette. 2008. Organizational Influences, Public Service Motivation and Work Outcomes: An Australian Study. International Public Management Journal, Vol. 11 No. 1 (January).

Tejada, Jeffry J. and Joyce Raymond B. Punzalan. 2012. On the Misuse of Slovin’s Formula. The Philippine Statistician, Vol. 61 No. 1 (January).

Thomas, Kenneth W. 2009. Intrinsic Motivation at Work: What Really Drives Employee Engagement. San Fransisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Tjiptoherijanto, Prijono. 2007. Civil Service Reform in Indonesia. International Public Management Review, Vol. 8 No. 2 (July).

Vandenabeele, Wouter. 2007. Toward a Public Administration Theory of Public Service Motivation. Public Management Review, Vol. 9 No. 4 (December).

Vandenabeele, Wouter. 2011. Who Wants to Deliver Public Service?: Do Institutional Antecedents of Public Service Motivation Provide an Answer?. Review of Public Personnel Administration, Vol. 31 No. 1 (December).

Vandenabeele, Wouter et al. 2004. The Civil Service as an Employer of Choice in Belgium. Review of Public Personnel Administration, Vol. 24 No. 4 (December).

Vandenabeele, Wouter et al. 2006. Public Service Motivation in an International Comparative Perspective: The UK and Germany. Public Policy and Administration, Vol. 21 No. 1 (Spring).

Vandenabeele, Wouter et. al. 2010. The Relationship between Public Service Motivation and Civil Servant’s Job Satisfaction in Various European Countries. Paper presented at ‘Reforming the Public Sector—How to Make the Difference’, 2 December, Rome, Italy.

Van de Walle, Steven et al. 2015. Extrinsic Motivation, PSM and Labour Market Characteristics: A Multilevel Model of Public Sector Employment Preference in 26 Countries. International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 81 No. 4 (March).

Wittmer, Dennis. 1991. Serving the People or Serving for Pay: Reward Preferences among Government, Hybrid Sector, and Business Managers. Public Productivity and Management Review, Vol. 14 No. 4 (Summer).

World Bank. 2003. Decentralizing Indonesia: A Regional Public Expenditure Review. Overview Report by East Asia Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit.

Wright, Bradley E. and Robert K. Christensen. 2010. Public Service Motivation: A Test of the Job Attraction-Selection-Attrition Model. International Public Management Journal, Vol. 13 No. 2 (October).

Wright, Bradley E. and Sanjay K. Pandey. 2008. Public Service Motivation and the Assumption of Person-Organization Fit: Testing the Mediating Effect of Value Congruence. Administration and Society, Vol. 40 No. 5 (September).

Yanti, M. 2012. Public Service Motivation and Job Satisfaction in Jambi, Indonesia. Dissertation in the Capella University.

Yudiatmaja, Wayu Eko, Alfiandri and Rahmat Hidayat. 2017. Far from Fire: The Service Delivery Quality Gap Plaguing Indonesian Ports. JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik), Vol. 21 No. 1 (May).

Yung, Betty. 2014. Differential Public Service Motivation among Hong Kong Public Officials: A Qualitative Study. Public Personnel Management, Vol. 43 No. 4 (December).




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29313/mimbar.v33i2.2516

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.