Hambatan dalam Mewujudkan Open Defecation Free

Hilmi Sulaiman Rathomi, Eka Nurhayati

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Open defecation free (ODF) merupakan salah satu target terpenting dalam Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) yang ditujukan memutus rantai transmisi penyakit menular. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perilaku buang air besar sembarangan (BABS) yang masih dilakukan oleh masyarakat, sekaligus menganalisis berbagai faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap upaya eliminasinya menggunakan model behavior change wheel. Penelitian ini merupakan studi cross sectional dengan melibatkan 210 orang penduduk Desa Mangunjaya, Kabupaten Bandung yang dipilih secara cluster random sampling periode April 2017. Data diperoleh melalui wawancara menggunakan kuesioner tervalidasi, lalu dianalisis menggunakan software SPSS 20 dengan uji chi-square dan Spearman Rank Correlation. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 28,6% penduduk Desa Mangunjaya yang masih mempraktikkan kebiasaan BAB sembarangan 22,4% penduduk yang tidak memiliki jamban. Ditemukan korelasi positif yang signifikan perilaku BABS dengan faktor motivasi (r=0,584), kemampuan (r=0,638), dan kesempatan (r=0,548). Terdapat perbedaan persepsi antara warga yang masih melakukan BABS dan yang tidak melakukan BABS mengenai faktor apa yang dinilai menghambat kepemilikan dan penggunaan jamban. Meskipun keduanya menyatakan bahwa faktor biaya adalah penghambatan utama, warga yang melakukan BABS cenderung menyalahkan lokasi desa sebagai hambatan terbesar kedua, sementara warga yang tidak BABS menilai bahwa kurangnya edukasi justru menjadi faktor terpenting selain hambatan biaya. Masih terdapat warga yang BABS dan tidak memiliki jamban dipengaruhi oleh faktor motivasi, kapabilitas, dan kesempatan. Peningkatan pengetahuan dan kepemilikan jamban perlu diupayakan lebih serius karena merupakan determinan terpenting pencapaian kondisi open defecation free di Desa Mangunjaya.

 

BARRIER OF OPEN DEFECATION FREE

Open defecation free (ODF) is one of the most important target in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that is intended to break the transmission chain of infectious diseases. This research aims to discover the open defecation (OD) behavior as well as to analyze factors that influence its elimination effort using behavioral change wheel model. This was a cross sectional study involving 210 villagers from Desa Mangunjaya, Bandung during April 2017 who were randomly selected with cluster random sampling method. Data were taken through interview using validated questionnaire, then analyzed using SPSS 20 with chi-square and Spearman rank correlation test. This research found there were 28.6% of residents in Desa Mangunjaya who are still practising OD and 22.4% do not have latrines. There was a significant positive correlation between OD behavior with motivational factor (r = 0.584), capability (r: 0.638), and opportunity (r: 0.548). There was a difference of perception between residents who were still practicing OD and who were not, on what factors are considered to inhibit the ownership and use of latrines. Although both placed the cost factor as the main barrier, residents who practicing OD tend to assess the location of the village as the second greatest obstacle, meanwhile the second group put the lack of education as a major factor in addition to cost constraints. The achievement of ODF condition in Desa Mangunjaya was inhibited by motivational, capability, and opportunity factors. Increasing latrines ownership and knowledge among villagers were very crucial, since they are the most important determinants.


Kata Kunci


Behavior change model; jamban sehat; open defecation free; healthy latrine

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Referensi


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