Scoping Review: Pengaruh Kadar Gula Darah tidak Terkontrol terhadap Komplikasi Makrovaskular pada Pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2

Nabila Maharani Suryanegara, Yani Dewi Suryani, Nuzirwan Acang

Abstract


Diabetes melitus (DM) tipe 2 adalah gangguan metabolik karena tubuh mampu menghasilkan insulin, namun tidak dalam kadar normal atau tidak dapat berespons terhadap efek insulin (resistensi insulin) sehingga menyebabkan hiperglikemia. Jika kadar gula darah tidak dikontrol dengan baik maka akan dapat menyebabkan komplikasi kronis berupa mikrovaskular seperti penyakit mata, neuropati dan nefropati, serta makrovaskular seperti penyakit arteri koroner, arteri perifer, dan serebrovaskular. Pada tahun 2013, riset menunjukkan prevalensi penderita DM di Indonesia tinggi, terutama di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Tujuan penelitian ini mengetahui komplikasi makrovaskular pada penderita diabetes melitus tipe 2 dengan kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol. Metode penelitian scoping review dengan mengidentifikasi, menganalisis, dan mengevaluasi suatu karya tulis ilmiah yang diterbitkan dalam rentang waktu 10 tahun terakhir yang dilakukan selama September–Desember 2020. Pencarian sistematis dilakukan melalui situs database PubMed, Springer Link, dan ProQuest. Sesuai dengan kriteria inklusi dan tidak termasuk eksklusi serta dilakukan skrining menggunakan kriteria kelayakan pada PRISMA dan disajikan dalam bentuk tabel hasil penelitian berisi uraian 9 artikel penelitian yang telah di-review. Simpulan: sembilan artikel menyatakan terdapat pengaruh kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol terhadap kemunculan komplikasi makrovaskular berupa penyakit arteri koroner, arteri perifer, dan serebrovaskular pada pasien diabetes melitus tipe 2. Kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol berkaitan dengan pembentukan plak aterosklerosis serta gangguan fungsi endotel sehingga pasien dengan miokardiak infark, gangren, dan iskemik strok merupakan presentasi yang umum pada pasien dengan kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol.

 

SCOPING REVIEW: THE EFFECT OF UNCONTROLLED BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS ON MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder because the body can produce insulin, but not at normal levels, or cannot respond to the effects of insulin (insulin resistance), causing hyperglycemia. If blood sugar levels have not properly controlled, it can lead to chronic complications in the form of microvascular diseases such as eye diseases, neuropathy, and nephropathy, and macrovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arteries, and cerebrovascular. In 2013, research showed the high prevalence of DM sufferers in Indonesia, especially in the province of Central Sulawesi. The objective of this study was to determine macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with uncontrolled blood sugar levels. Scoping review research method by identifying, analyzing, and evaluating a scientific paper published in the last ten years, conducted in September–December 2020. Systematic searches through PubMed, Springer Link, and ProQuest database sites. Following inclusion criteria and no exclusion criteria, screening was carried out using the eligibility criteria at PRISMA and presented in the form of a research table containing a reviewed descriptions of nine research articles. Conclusion: nine research articles stated an effect of uncontrolled blood sugar levels on the appearance of macrovascular complications, such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arteries, and cerebrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels were associated with atherosclerotic plaque formation and impaired endothelial function. Myocardial infarction, gangrene, ischemic stroke are common presentations in patients with uncontrolled blood sugar levels.


Keywords


Diabetes mellitus tipe 2; kadar gula darah tidak terkontrol; komplikasi makrovaskular; macrovascular complications; type 2 diabetes mellitus; uncontrolled blood sugar levels

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.29313/jiks.v3i2.7289

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